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An excerpt (pp 137-148) from the document: Preservation Guidelines for Municipally Owned Historic Burial Grounds and Cemeteries, Second edition published in 2002 by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation at the conclusion of the Historic Cemeteries Preservation Initiative.
|National Register Status:||Listed as part of Town Green Historic District|
|Current Management:||Parks Department|
Central Avenue vault tombs
Walnut Street cemetery, also known as the Old Burying Ground, dates to 1717 but its appearance today reflects the ideals of the 19th century rural cemetery movement. Dramatic topography is concealed behind stone walls on this relatively small 1.43 acre site. A narrow valley separates two hillocks with rows of vaulted mound tombs. Located at the eastern end of the Town Green Historic District at the corner of Walnut Street and Chestnut Road, the cemetery is no longer active, although the last interment was in 1995.
Walnut Street Cemetery began with 1/2 acre of land purchased from Samuel Clark, Jr. in 1717, 12 years after the incorporation of Brookline. The site was located on Walnut Street, originally called Sherbourne Road. It was one of the oldest roads in the Commonwealth, serving as the main route of travel west from Boston until construction of the Worcester Turnpike in 1806. Located near the First Parish Church Meeting House and town school, the site served as Brookline's only municipal cemetery until 1875 when Walnut Hills Cemetery was established. For over a century the cemetery was informally maintained by the Clark family who were allowed to cut hay there in return for keeping a wood fence around it.
By 1840 the Old Burying Ground had fallen into disrepair because of neglect. it was enlarged that year with the purchase of 3/4 acre from Caleb Clark. It is assumed that this land was on the south side because the older slate markers are on the north side. The same year a survey and a plan for improvement were prepared by E. I. Woodward. The latter included a stone wall and moving the entrance to its present location. These and other improvements transformed the simple parish burying ground into a more fashionable rural cemetery of the time with curving paths and ornamental plantings. This landscape character blended in with the country houses it was surrounded by in Brookline. In 1850 care of the cemetery passed from First Parish Church to the Town.
Walnut Street Cemetery is the resting place of many of the distinguished residents of early Brookline as well as the servants of several families. Prominent people include Zabdiel Boylston who introduced inoculation against smallpox and was an uncle of President John Adams, Anna Mather who was stepmother of Rev. Cotton Mather, Thomas Aspinwall Davis mayor of Boston in 1845, Samuel White a State Representative, descendants of Judge Sewall of Salem witchcraft fame, Rev. John Pierce Minister of First Parish Church from 1796 to 1847, members of the Goddard family who were prominent in politics and commerce in Brookline and Boston, members of the Gardner family, and founders of the town.
Other prominent figures include John Goddard who was wagon master general in the Continental Army in charge of fortifying Dorchester Heights in 1779, and other Revolutionary War heroes like Capt. Timothy Corey, Col. Thomas Aspinwall who commanded the fort at Sewall's Point and prevented the British from proceeding up the Charles River during the Revolution, and Dr. William Aspinwall a physician and surgeon in that war who later established a hospital for smallpox inoculation and represented Brookline in the legislature.
Central Avenue vault tombs (late 19th century)
Today the site is the home of tall and stately trees, mostly located adjacent to the south and west edges which are appropriate for screening adjacent residential uses. Ornamental trees were planted with the expansion of the cemetery about 1840, most likely in the style of the rural cemetery movement. An 1898 account noted Locust, Barberry, White Daylily, Bouncing Bet and Sweet William growing. The lower level understory and flowers which were part of the lush vegetative treatment of the rural garden cemetery are no longer evident.
Consideration should be given to re-establishing a historically appropriate garden style planting in the southern portion of the cemetery. The northern portion, with its older slate markers, should be left more open in character which is more appropriate to the age of development of this part of the site.
There are 41 trees growing inside the cemetery composed of 78% deciduous and 22% evergreen species. While Sugar Maples account for 1/3 of all trees, 13 species are represented [14 Sugar Maple, 6 Black Oak, 5 White Oak, 1 American Elm, I American Sycamore, 1 White Ash, 1 Tuliptree, 1 Black Locust, 1 Shagbark Hickory, 1 Corktree, 4 Red Pine, 2 Eastern Hemlock, 2 White Cedar and 1 Scotch Pine]. Lower scale material includes a Cherry, Japanese Barberry, Euonymous and Yew.
The plant material has been maintained very well over the years. Trees between 24 and 36" DBH [diameter at breast height] were pruned in 1998. The largest tree is a Tuliptree, perhaps one of the largest in New England at 133.45" in circumference and over 100' tall. Other large mature trees are scattered throughout, but they are not as tall. Most trees are in fair condition with the exception of 5 trees that have signs of extensive decay in the main stem [trunk]. An additional 5 trees along the west edge of the entrance drive have root damage caused by vehicles or lawn equipment. The two Eastern Hemlock are infested with the insect Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. A large White Oak appears to be dead or is in a serious state of decline. Attached dead leaves during the dormant period are an outward sign of problems from the past growing season. It may be a temporary leaf infection of the fungus known as Anthracnose that was widespread over the past two years. The prolonged wet springs also spread the fungus spores throughout many other species. A standing dead tree trunk of approximately 25' high is located on the south fence line.
Most of the trees on this site were planted, with the exception of 3 volunteer trees just outside the entrance growing close to the fence near the Tuliptree. These should be removed because of interference with the fence as should the large White Oak and the small evergreen tree at the Cook family plot that is interfering with plot fencing. To maintain healthy turf throughout, it would be beneficial to remove the 4 Red Pine and raise some of the lower branches of deciduous trees.
Trees that fail can cause serious damage to people, grave markers and adjacent houses. A hazardous tree evaluation is recommended for the 10 trees that display outward signs of extensive internal decay within the trunks and root systems. A root collar examination is recommended for the 5 trees on the west side of the entrance drive to determine the percent of structural root loss. Clearing the soil from around the main support roots on the drive side and testing the roots for strength loss should give sufficient information to determine potential root failure.
Trees that have open cavities, loose bark with decay beneath them, trees that go into the ground like a telephone pole, and trees that have old vertical cracks all need to be investigated for percent of sound wood loss. Soil needs to be cleared away from the bases of all trees to expose the root crown [collar]. This is where girdling roots are hidden and decay starts from suffocation of covered trunk bark. Mature trees should be treated for insects, and fertilization would help preserve and prolong the life of these trees.
Most volunteer growth is associated directly with mound tomb and vault structures where invasive roots are causing damage.
Remove volunteer growth.
Lawns were in fair to poor condition with erosion, bare spots, some herbaceous weeds and moss in numerous locations. Lawns are cared for by a dedicated cemetery crew. A slow release low nitrogen fertilizer is reportedly applied annually.
Repair lawn areas. Continue fertilization program.
The cemetery is accessible to pedestrians from Walnut Street through a chained and padlocked pedestrian gate with a 27" clear opening which is too narrow for universal accessibility. It is adjacent to a wider vehicular gate. The bituminous concrete walk along Walnut Street may be accessible but one is. confronted with an unpaved steep slope once inside the gate. There are no paved paths inside.
No changes are recommended.
Service vehicles access the cemetery from Walnut Street through the inward swinging, double leaf gate with a 10'-6" clear opening.
This access procedure appears acceptable.
Security is apparent, but not assured because the vehicular gate is chained but not locked. With a height of about 4', much of the wall along Walnut Street is scalable. There are also two breaches in the perimeter chain link fence.
Although vandalism is not a current issue, consideration should be given to keeping the gate locked except for requested openings. Valuable artifacts like the family plot fencing are often targets of theft. Repair the breaches in the fence.
Little vandalism has been reported in recent years. A small amount of trash and debris was found on the site including an inflatable snow sled. There was however evidence of vandalism from another time. This included broken grave markers, improperly reset markers and bases with missing markers.
Vandalism is not a significant problem and no changes are recommended at this time other than grave marker repair.
The drive and path system were laid out c. 1840 with an apparent attempt to connect the old portion of the cemetery with an area of expansion. The south side consists of 4 interconnected parallel east-west routes while the older 3 north side routes tend to converge near the Pierce mound tomb, where the original entrance was most likely located.
No changes are recommended. If the original entrance is determined to be where it is assumed above, some form of notation should be made on the cemetery side of the wall to help visitors understand this part of the path system.
The path system is clearly apparent even though most of it is currently lawn. Some routes are steep and narrow, particularly getting to Ridge Avenue.
The path system should remain as it is.
There are 9 sets of steps with a total of 36 treads related to family plots throughout the cemetery. Most are granite and one is constructed of field stones. Two of the steps are edged. Three of the sets of steps [with 3, 4 and 5 treads] have shifted somewhat, resulting in variation in riser height and in overall tread levelness. Most appear to be dry laid directly on the ground surface and could easily be reset.
The various site steps should be reset. To the extent that the foundations for these elements are probably loose stones, they should be removed and a concrete foundation cast to keep the stone elements level and plumb. The two materials can be joined with concealed stainless steel dowels.
Circulation routes are covered with grass and/or gravel with remnants of macadam or bituminous concrete on drives. There is a small area of this remnant pavement near the southwest corner and a larger one near the southeast corner.
Surface materials should remain grass until visitation reaches the point where it is no longer practical to maintain lawn. At that time a paved path system should be considered. Gravel surfaces should be replaced with lawn. Remnants of macadam surfaces should remain, but not be improved.
The collection of about 200 grave markers includes the full range of stone types and problems. About 40-50% of the memorials are marble, another 30 to 40% are granite, some 20 to 25% are slate, and a few, perhaps 5%, are sandstone. There are a number of marble and red granite obelisks. There is a concern that some markers and plots may have been lost in the c. 1840 restructuring of the burial ground.
A brief examination found: 2 broken marble and 1 broken slate that appeared repairable, although many others had missing pieces; 7 bases with missing markers; 3 delaminating slate markers; 2 toppled marble obelisks, 12 toppled marble markers and 3 toppled slate markers; 3 leaning marble obelisks and 1 leaning granite obelisk; 24 leaning marble, 10 leaning slate and I leaning granite marker; 1 marble obelisk and 2 granite markers need to be reset square with their bases; settlement at the base of a larger marker; and I buried stone and 6 flush markers becoming covered with sediment and grass.
Both iron and bronze pins were evident in the toppled and shifted stones. Slate and sandstone markers exhibit varying degrees of peeling and splitting. Most of the marble markers are quite weathered, with eroded, often illegible surfaces and some biological encrustation.
Raised lead letters embedded in stone, often found in British cemeteries, were used in the Ogden monument, which notes that the body is buried in Bath, England. Two bronze plaques, one on a pudding stone marker and another above a mound tomb vault, need conservation.
Reset all toppled and tilted root stones [having no base or foundation], using sufficient gravel for drainage and reduced frost heave. Reset all toppled stones on deeper and perhaps larger foundations beneath the base stones. These stones should be repinned with non-corroding pins. The pins should be set in lead, and lead strip used to fill the joint between the memorial stone and the base stone. Under no circumstances should caulk be used in resetting two part stones.
Stones that have vertical splits or are about to delaminate present difficult conservation issues. Neither mortar nor adhesives should not be used to reattach peeling stone, as hard material inserted between layers will act as a wedge, applying pressure that will continue the splitting process. Consideration should be given to having an experienced stone conservator make a cementitious profile cap that covers the skyward edge, limiting intrusion of rain and snow into the stone and movement of the stone layers. Earlier attempts in downtown Boston cemeteries using such caps in bronze and iron have proved mechanically stable, but corrosion stains on the marker can be unsightly.
Tarnished bronze plaques should be cleaned and conserved.
The installation of small, discrete, at grade, in ground markers designating family plot boundaries is encouraged.
The street retaining walls are deteriorated in a similar manner. While generally intact, the mortar is extensively cracked, loose or missing, and at one point along Walnut Street there is a significant outward bulge.
The retaining wall along Walnut Street consists of random sized, roughly dressed pudding stones capped with granite slabs. The wall height ranges from 4' at the entrance gates at the northwest corner of the cemetery to 7' at the northeast corner at Chestnut Road. The heavily mortared joints have a raised bead, a decorative device intended to distract the eye away from the random width of the joint. However, the mortar joints are extensively cracked, loose and missing.
Overall, the rough textured wall is plumb and intact but individual stones have shifted or have fallen out of the wall. The granite capstones have also shifted about. Some of the head joints are mortared and others are filled with lead. At one location about 50' from the Chestnut Road corner, there is a significant outward bulge in the wall. It is not apparent whether this is due to a current shifting of the earth behind the wall or whether this is an old but stable distortion.
The Chestnut Road retaining wall is newer than the Walnut Street wall. Consisting of dressed granite units tightly fitted together in a broken ashlar pattern, the mortar joints are narrow and generally intact. However, this wall may be so tightly constructed that water from the hill behind the wall becomes trapped, resulting in moisture seeping through the mortar joints to escape. Evidence of this activity is the leachate stains and moss on the face of the wall. The granite slabs capping the wall are well set, but the joints are open and need to be repointed.
The retaining walls need urgent maintenance in order to preserve their present stability. Because of the earth retained on one side, the backsides of the walls are constantly exposed to moisture infiltration. They are also exposed to moisture infiltration at their top surfaces because of the imperfect barrier of the capstones. The capstones have no drip edges to prevent water from getting under the stones and the failed head joints allow water to enter directly from the top. The lead filled joints on the Walnut Street wall appear to be an unsuccessful attempt to seal the head joints.
There is no simple way to protect the top of the walls from moisture infiltration. Through wall flashing is probably the best technical method, but it is often aesthetically undesirable because of the visible edges and seams. Head and bed joints can be sealed with a flexible material but exceptional quality control during installation is needed to prevent premature failure [separation and tearing] and to achieve permanent colors that match surrounding stone and mortar colors. Repointing the joints with mortar is satisfactory in the short term but periodic maintenance is needed to keep up with the inevitable cracking that will occur in a large outdoor structure subject to wide variations in temperature and moisture exposure.
Repoint the Walnut Street retaining wall in its entirety. Reset missing stones. Remove and reset the capstones using two stainless steel pins between the capstones and wall stones. Set the capstones in full mortar beds and provide fully mortared head joints. Properly installed sealant may be added to raked mortared joints at the capstones. Weep holes should be added near the base of the walls including the wall on Chestnut Road, using copper, black iron or black PVC pipes. For aesthetic purposes, white PVC should not be used.
At the Walnut Street wall suspend a plumb bob from the edge of the capstone at the location of the bulge and mark its point on the sidewalk with paint. Repeat plumb bob observations once a month for at least a year. If any additional movement occurs, the bulged area should be dismantled and rebuilt. If no movement occurs, the area should be repointed like the rest of the wall.
There is a 2 to 3' high pudding stone retaining wall near the top of the hill separating lots between Ridge Avenue and Cedar Avenue. This wall is severely disrupted. Individual stones are missing, many stones units are displaced, almost all of the mortar is broken or missing, vegetation has rooted in and around the stones, and a short section of the wall near the eastern end is missing. Restoration of this wall would essentially involve dismantling and rebuilding it. There is also a short wall at the Shepard family plot.
Dismantle and rebuild the retaining wall. This can be either dry laid or mortared, but weep holes should be installed if the wall is mortared.
There are 20 visible tomb structures as well as two buried vaults near the southwest corner where the tops of brick arches can be seen at the surface. One appears to have a slate door. Of the visible tomb structures, there is a row of 12 facing Central Avenue, a row of 6 facing Boylston Avenue, one facing the end of Goddard Avenue and backing onto Walnut Street and one facing south on Broad Avenue. Most are in early stages of deterioration due to moisture infiltration and freeze-thaw action. That is, the structures as a whole are intact but individual stone and brick elements are displaced and mortar is severely cracked or missing.
Central Avenue Tombs: There are 12 tombs along the central valley of the cemetery. The front walls of the 6 at the eastern end are built of large, dressed, gray granite units to form a continuous wall with only small jambs and lintels at each door. The first 3 of the 6 are generally intact although they need some mortar repointing. The capstone level of the second 3 tombs is 4" lower than the first 3 and the top 2 courses of stone lean outward. This leaning condition appears to be old insofar as there is no soil subsidence behind the wall and there are two iron or steel tie rods anchoring the stones. Several of the bed joints are filled with lead sheets. It is unclear whether this was a repair or part of the original construction. The malleability of the lead makes it useful as a sealant if it is squeezed between two materials. The granite capstones are generally seated well and with little relative displacement. Iron staples tie the capstones together end to end but many of the staples are missing.
The front walls of the remaining 6 tombs are built of brick with stone lintels and jambs at the doors. The last tomb is higher than its 4 neighbors. Although these tombs appear to be within one continuous wall, there are vertical stack bond joints between each tomb. If the exposed sidewall at the last tomb is typical of all of the brick tombs, then the roofs are brick barrel arches. Although there is some minor bulging and leaning in the brick walls, there is little displacement and disruption of individual bricks. The worst disruption occurs at the last vault, where the side wall is exposed, the arch and several courses of the wall are disrupted and many bricks are missing. Except for some rebuilding at this location, about 30% of the overall brick work needs to be repointed.
Boylston Avenue Tombs: There are six tombs facing Boylston Avenue with an 1864 receiving tomb at the west end. Dating from about 1808, they vary in size and construction. The fronts of the two at the western end are constructed of random ashlar [consisting of a tan granite or pudding stone] with gray granite jambs, lintels and capstones. There is only minor displacement in the stonework but localized areas of mortar joints are severely deteriorated. There is evidence of past, partial repointing efforts. The original joints were scratched to create a straight 3/8" wide joint within the overall random mortar joint width. Overall, the stonework is plumb and level and there is no earth erosion on the exposed west end.
The fronts of the third and fourth tombs [the 1808 Capt. Timothy Corey's family tomb and 1808 Joseph and Benjamin Goddards tomb] are constructed of dressed, gray granite units assembled to form jambs, walls, bases and heavy lintels. One door opening is bricked up and the other has a white marble family marker. The mortar joints between the stone units are cracked, loose and missing. Some of the wall units are slightly out of plumb but are level. The base units sit on a foundation of fieldstone. Vegetation grows in and around the stonework.
The fifth tomb [Andem/Kendall] is similar in appearance to the third and fourth but it is 6" lower. Several of the granite wall units have shifted in and out about 1/2". The door opening is bricked up.
The front of the sixth tomb is also built of dressed, gray granite units but they are different in style from the third, fourth and fifth tombs. The lintel is much more shallow and perhaps its lighter weight failed to prevent the front walls from tilting outward. The bricked up door opening was partially open, allowing a view of the vault interior. Roof construction consists of 6" thick granite slabs. The roof is covered with a stoney fill about 12" thick and a layer of loam about 3 or 4" thick. The interior walls are built of angular, random sized stones that appear to be intact. A closer inspection may reveal that repointing is needed.
Rev. John Pierce Tomb: The Pierce tomb is an isolated mound tomb having a brick front and stone side walls. The earth mound is in good condition and there is no erosion. However, some of the stones on the western side have been pried apart by shrubs rooted into the stones. The capstones and the upper 5 or 6 courses of the brick front are loose and need to be rebuilt or repointed. While the lower courses are intact, there is evidence of past maintenance in the presence of 3 or 4 different styles of brick. The back of this tomb is visible in the Walnut Street retaining wall, consisting of 3 dressed granite courses within the pudding stone of the wall.
Broad Avenue Tomb: There is a modest stone tomb at the western end of Broad Avenue corresponding with the Howe plot. The side walls are partially exposed. The west corner is intact but heavily mortared while the east corner has many open joints and shifted units. The lintel stone is rotated from root invasion.
Arches: The crowns of two brick arches are nearly flush with the ground on Broad Avenue at about the location of the First Parish and Baptist Society plots. These arches appear to be tops of mound tombs. There is no evidence of any mounds at these locations but the arches may be remnants of collapsed tombs that were once present at this location. Their extent and character could be verified with excavation around these areas with an archaeologist present.
The following work should be performed at tomb vaults, assuming that they no longer contain any human remains.
Undisturbed front walls should be repointed and disrupted front walls should be dismantled and reassembled. When the walls are reassembled, they should be pinned to the roof and sidewall construction to prevent future -independent movement.
Doors should be opened so that interiors can be inspected. Intact interiors should be left alone. Disrupted interiors should be pointed or rebuilt provided that the source of disruption, usually water, is removed. This may require uncovering the vault and repairing or waterproofing the top side of the vault.
Unless the leaning walls of the 3 vaults on Central Avenue have acquired a "historic" character, they should be dismantled and reassembled plumb. It should be verified whether there is any earth being retained by these walls. The walls should be repinned to the roof and sidewalls of the vaults.
Because brick is a poor material for retaining moist earth, the doors should be opened to verify whether the interior is rectangular or arched. If the brick wall does retain earth, it should be waterproofed on the backside. If not, periodic repointing and a surface sealer will maintain the integrity of the brickwork.
Remove invasive vegetation impinging on the front walls.
Two iron doors are intact, one at the receiving tomb with a door knocker and a contemporary padlock. The other is on one of the Central Avenue tombs. The rest are bricked or blocked in. Numerous hinge and latch pins remain.
Many of the iron entrance doors at mound tombs are missing or they have deteriorated to such an extent that masonry replacements have been installed. A visually similar, unobtrusive, standard painted steel or cast iron plate, secured to the masonry with expansion bolts, should be used. A paint study should be performed on the doors to determine if green or black is the appropriate historic color. The padlock should be changed to one with a more appropriate historic character.
Quarter round granite edging along Broad Avenue for the Goddard and Chase family plots has rotated and shifted. The simple granite edge for the Leonard family plot appears stable. A number of granite plot boundary markers define two plots on the west side. There are few elsewhere. An iron plot boundary marker was found near the center of the site.
The edging should be reset on a more permanent foundation. To the extent that the foundations for these elements are probably loose stones, they should be removed and a concrete foundation cast to keep the stone elements level and plumb. The two materials can be joined with concealed stainless steel dowels.
Cook family plot fence detail
There is an inward swinging, double leaf iron picket vehicular gate and a single leaf pedestrian gate supported on 12" square by 5' high granite posts at the Walnut Street entrance. The gate construction is somewhat unusual with 1/4" thick by 1-1/2" wide vertical pickets and I/2" thick by 2-1/2" wide horizontal members. Hinges for the vehicular gate are mounted on the rear of the support post allowing unobstructed entry, while the pedestrian gate hinges are mounted on the sides of the post. The westernmost granite post is leaning out of vertical. The paint finish on the gates is in good condition, but two of the pickets in the vehicular gate are bent.
Reset the granite support post to vertical position and straighten bent pickets.
Two family plots have unique but deteriorating ornamental iron fence enclosures. The Cook family plot at the high point of Ridge Avenue has a circular enclosure of granite posts and iron fences. It has 12 slender granite posts with rounded tops. One is left that is almost intact. The rest are split and many tops are missing. There were 10 sections of iron fence with a winged hour glass [time flies] motif. Three of the five remaining sections are almost completely intact. The section facing the end of Ridge Avenue probably had a gate or 3 cast iron bollards like those found at the northwest comer facing an unnamed avenue leading to the cemetery entrance.
The Foster family Plot has an iron fence enclosure with a wood post and bent twig motif. The fence sections appear to have been molded because they are only finished on one side. The enclosure is three sided with 6 sections of fence and a gate. The gate is missing, one fence section is missing and another is leaning.
Restore these beautiful and unique fences and gates.
Three sides of the perimeter are enclosed with six foot high chain link fence. It has top rails and center rails at the comers. The fabric is heavily rusted. The top rails, H section and tubular section posts are not quite as corroded. The fence is generally stable.
On the west side there is a breach at about the middle of the length of fence. Erosion at same location has exposed the concrete foundations of the fence posts. On the south side, there are two bent top rails near the southwest corner apparently caused by falling tree limbs. On the northeast side near the intersection with the south east side, one section of fabric about 10 feet long has been peeled back adjacent to a tree growing into the fabric. The north end of the fence has a quarter circle fence guard with barbed wire at the top of wall.
Repair the two breaches in the fence as soon as possible. Consider replacing the fence in the next ten years with a black vinyl coated chain link fence.
No signs of any type were found.
An identification sign should be added near the entrance with some basic rules and regulations. If more visitation is anticipated, informational and/or interpretive signs should be considered.
There are no seating, trash receptacles or flagpoles in the cemetery.
Do not add these elements.
No drainage structures were found inside the cemetery. All drainage flows over the surface toward the southwest comer. No puddling was evident. It was apparent that during heavy rains surface drainage from Walnut Street enters the site through the gate and has been the cause of the erosion on the west portion of Broad Avenue.
Improve the entrance conditions on Walnut Avenue including the private drive entrance immediately west of the cemetery entrance by raising the street curb and ramping up both drive entrances to prevent street drainage from entering the site.
One hose bibb was found at the Walnut Street end of Goddard Avenue.
Verify that the hose bibb is functional. Do not add additional water.
There are no light fixtures inside the cemeteryStreet lights are on the utility poles along the Walnut Street edge.
Do not add light fixtures.